Zero-one k-laws for G(n,n−α)

We study asymptotical behavior of the probabilities of first-order properties for Erdős-Rényi random graphs G(n,p(n)) with p(n)=n, α ∈ (0,1). The following zero-one law was proved in 1988 by S. Shelah and J.H. Spencer [1]: if α is irrational then for any first-order property L either the random graph satisfies the property L asymptotically almost surely or it doesn't satisfy (in such cases the random graph is said to obey zero-one law. When α ∈ (0,1) is rational the zero-one law for these graphs doesn't hold.

Let k be a positive integer. Denote by Lk the class of the first-order properties of graphs defined by formulae with quantifier depth bounded by the number k (the sentences are of a finite length). Let us say that the random graph obeys zero-one k-law, if for any first-order property LLk either the random graph satisfies the property L almost surely or it doesn't satisfy. Since 2010 we prove several zero-one $k$-laws for rational α from Ik=(0, 1/(k-2)] ∪ [1-1/(2k-1), 1). For some points from Ik we disprove the law. In particular, for α ∈ (0, 1/(k-2)) ∪ (1-1/2k-2, 1) zero-one k-law holds. If α ∈ {1/(k-2), 1-1/(2k-2)}, then zero-one law does not hold (in such cases we call the number α k-critical).

We also disprove the law for some α ∈ [2/(k-1), k/(k+1)]. From our results it follows that zero-one 3-law holds for any α ∈ (0,1). Therefore, there are no 3-critical points in (0,1). Zero-one 4-law holds when α ∈ (0,1/2) ∪ (13/14,1). Numbers 1/2 and 13/14 are 4-critical. Moreover, we know some rational 4-critical and not 4-critical numbers in [7/8,13/14). The number 2/3 is 4-critical. Recently we obtain new results concerning zero-one 4-laws for the neighborhood of the number 2/3.

References

[1] S. Shelah, J.H. Spencer, Zero-one laws for sparse random graphs, J. Amer. Math. Soc.

1: 97–115, 1988.